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It is a late Baroque style church built in 1625–1743, with a rich décor and plastic facades. The church itself is a brick, two-tower, single-nave building with a presbytery narrower and lower than the nave, and a semi-circular apse. It is part of the former Benedictine monastery ensemble of the 17th - 19th century. The church is connected with the monastery through a corridor. At the southwest side of the church, there is a Chapel of Providence designed by Kristupas Glaubicas. The architect matched the upper part of the facade to the lower part, making only very slight changes, therefore the entire facade of the church is rather seamless. The side Chapel of Providence is centric, hexagonal on the outside and semi-circular on the inside.
During and after World War II, the church and the monastery were significantly damaged and lost a lot of valuable works of art. In Soviet times, the church belonged to Vilnius Art Museum. A warehouse was established in it, as well as offices and apartments within the monastery building. Restoration works of the church began in 1994. The Church of St. Catherine is the first church in Vilnius that was fully renovated during Lithuania's period of independence. The church underwent major repairs and complex interior restoration works. The restoration works of the upper parts of both towers were completed in 1998. The central altar of the church was fully restored.
The restored Church of St. Catherine opened its doors to visitors in 2006. Its main nave was adapted for concert activities, its cellars will be used as space for exhibitions, and premises situated around the main nave will be used for rehearsals of artistic collectives of Vilnius City Municipality, as well as for chamber events. The church, which has excellent acoustics, is used for cultural events, rehearsals and concerts of St. Christopher Chamber Orchestra, choir "Jauna muzika" ("Young Music"), boys' and youths' choir "Ąžuoliukas" ("Little Oak") and other artistic collectives and performers.