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Kaišiadorys is an old location that has been known for centuries. In 1906, under the initiative of the locals, for the first time there were serious considerations to establish a local parish and build a local church. Since then, the great period of bureaucratic deliberations has begun. A new parsonage was built in 1907, and a chapel was illegally erected in a former grain warehouse. After just one year, Kaišiadorys finally received its long-awaited first priest Valerijonas Goliakas. Kaišiadorys parish was officially formalized soon after. An officially approved project of the new church was received in 1908. In 1909, priest J. Murnikas came to Kaišiadorys. Actual constructions of the current church began only when Kaišiadorys Church (which was only a chapel at the time) received its fourth priest A. Varnas. However, construction works were stopped for quite some time by World War I in 1914. Constructions of the church were renewed only in 1921. Works were moving forward rapidly, therefore Kaišiadorys was declared to be a separate diocese in 1926, and J. Kukta became its bishop. The church was then consecrated into a cathedral. Constructions of the church were completed in 1932. The design of the church was changed three times during its constructions until the cathedral became the way it is today – a proportional red-brick neo-Gothic building with elements of neo-Romanesque decor in its facade.
The interior of the church has three naves separated by multi-edged pillars. The vaults are cross-braced. The churchyard is surrounded by an iron column fence. It includes several crosses.