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When Casimir was officially recognized as a saint, the ruler of Poland and Lithuania Zigmantas Vaza (Zygmunt Vasa) began building a proper chapel for Casimir's remains in the basilica of Vilnius Arch-cathedral. Art connoisseurs compare Vilnius Cathedral to a splendid jeweller's ring where the Chapel of Saint Casimir is its jewel. This chapel is one of the most valuable Baroque masterpieces in Lithuania.

The Chapel of St. Casimir can be found while walking across the southern nave of the cathedral. At the end of the nave, on the southern wall, there is a heavily gilded arch of triumph decorated with red marble columns and black marble. There is a black marble plaque above the cornice with words written in gold: Sancti Casmiri — "The Chapel of Saint Casimir".

The project of the chapel was prepared by architect Matteo Castello, while its interior was designed by the architect's nephew Costantino Tencalla. Expensive construction materials were used to build the chapel: sandstone brought from Sweden and marble from the Carpathian Mountains. The construction and decoration of the Baroque chapel cost more than 3 million auksinas (ancient Lithuanian currency, derived from the word auksinis - meaning gold).

Creators of the Chapel wanted to convey the harmony of Heaven and Earth. Its lower part is shaped like a cube, while the red and black marble reminds us of our earthly journey, and the matter of earth and clay. A brightly decorated dome - a symbol of heaven is suspended above the walls by an octagonal drum. Its eight corners is the symbol of rebirth, new life and fulfilment of blessings. There is a circle at the top of the dome which is a symbol of perfection and of God himself.

The grey sandstone frieze is decorated with little heads of women holding baskets full of fruit, and with eagles whose chests hold the coat of arms of the Vaza family dynasty. Below the feet of eagles, there are horns of abundance dropping vast amounts of the finest fruit. This is a sign of excess, abundance and prosperity testifying both the generosity of the founders of this chapel, and the welfare of the Republic of Both Nations. There are plant ornaments with the heads and wings of little angels above the pilasters. Earthly chapel decor elements are separated from the bright symbols of heavenly reality made of stucco by even red and black marble friezes, above which a protruding three-row black marble cornice is established.

At the left of the altar, there is a small, portable, gold and silver plated, cup-shaped, late Baroque style pulpit made in the 18th century. The tribune itself, decorated with carved lines of leaf ornaments, is carried on the shoulders of an eagle spreading its wings. The pulpit is surrounded by a metal fence and can be accessed through wooden, slightly bent stairs.

Some researchers believe that the eagle is an allusion to the coat of arms of Poland, due to the fact that Christian traditions came to Lithuania through this country. However, it is more likely that the cup and the eagle are symbols of apostle and evangelist St. John. This pulpit was used to preach the good news of salvation brought by Christ to the people of all nations written both by St. John and other evangelists.

When the cathedral was rebuilt in 1783–1808, its new classical style was matched to the unchanged Baroque Chapel of St. Casimir. On the norther side of the cathedral, a sacristy of Baroque forms is built symmetrically to the Chapel of St. Casimir. It is said that L. Stuoka-Gucevičius walled up the chapel during the major repairs of the cathedral, so that nothing would be destroyed within it. The chapel has been preserved since the 17th century without any major alterations.